Category Archives: Altruism

The Long List of What we Know because of Manning



Written by Greg Mitchell at The Nation:

“”The debate in the media, and in political circles over Edward Snowden—Right or Wrong—often doubles back on references to Pfc. Manning, who was sentenced to thirty-five years in prison on Wednesday. Too often (that is, most of the time), the value and import of the Manning/WikiLeaks disclosures are ignored or dismissed, just as Snowden’s NSA scoops are often derided as “nothing new.”

So for those who either suffer from memory loss or ignorance on this particular score, here is a partial accounting of some of the important revelations in the Manning leak, drawn from my book—with Kevin Gosztola—on the Manning case, Truth and Consequences (the e-book just now updated to include the trial, the verdict, this week’s sentencing and reactions).

The revelations below were compiled for the book in March 2011—many others followed, including the important Gitmo files (see my piece about them) in April 2011.  Here is a New York Times take on just part of those Gitmo files: “What began as a jury-rigged experiment after the 2001 terrorist attacks now seems like an enduring American institution, and the leaked files show why, by laying bare the patchwork and contradictory evidence that in many cases would never have stood up in criminal court or a military tribunal.”  So even this accounting below is far from complete.

And let’s not forget what started it all: the “Collateral Murder” video.

First, just a very partial list from “Cablegate” (keep in mind, this does not include many other bombshells that caused a stir in smaller nations abroad):

• Yemeni president lied to his own people, claiming his military carried out air strikes on militants actually done by the US. All part of giving US full rein in country against terrorists.

• Details on Vatican hiding big sex abuse cases in Ireland.

• US tried to get Spain to curb its probes of Gitmo torture and rendition.

• Egyptian torturers trained by FBI—although allegedly to teach the human rights issues.

• State Dept. memo: US-backed 2009 coup in Honduras was “illegal and unconstitutional.”

• Cables on Tunisia appear to help spark revolt in that country. The country’s ruling elite described as “The Family,” with Mafia-like skimming throughout the economy. The country’s first lady may have made massive profits off a private school.

• US knew all about massive corruption in Tunisia back in 2006 but went on supporting the government anyway, making it the pillar of its North Africa policy.

• Cables showed the UK promised in 2009 to protect US interests in the official Chilcot inquiry on the start of the Iraq war.

* Oil giant Shell claims to have “inserted staff” and fully infiltrated Nigeria’s government.

• US pressured the European Union to accept GM—genetic modification, that is.

• Washington was misled by our own diplomats on Russia-Georgia showdown.

• Extremely important historical document finally released in full: Ambassador April Glaspie’s cable from Iraq in 1990 on meeting with Saddam Hussein before Kuwait invasion.

• The UK sidestepped a ban on housing cluster bombs. Officials concealed from Parliament how the US is allowed to bring weapons on to British soil in defiance of treaty.

• The New York Times: “From hundreds of diplomatic cables, Afghanistan emerges as a looking-glass land where bribery, extortion and embezzlement are the norm and the honest man is a distinct outlier.”

• Afghan vice president left country with $52 million “in cash.”

• Shocking levels of US spying at the United Nations (beyond what was commonly assumed) and intense use of diplomats abroad in intelligence-gathering roles.

• Potential environmental disaster kept secret by the US when a large consignment of highly enriched uranium in Libya came close to cracking open and leaking radioactive material into the atmosphere.

• US used threats, spying, and more to try to get its way at last year’s crucial climate conference in Copenhagen.

* American and British diplomats fear Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program — with poor security — could lead to fissile material falling into the hands of terrorists or a devastating nuclear exchange with India.

• Hundreds of cables detail US use of diplomats as “sales” agents, more than previously thought, centering on jet rivalry of Boeing vs. Airbus. Hints of corruption and bribes.

• Millions in US military aid for fighting Pakistani insurgents went to other gov’t uses (or stolen) instead.

• Israel wanted to bring Gaza to the ”brink of collapse.”

• The US secret services used Turkey as a base to transport terrorism suspects as part of its extraordinary rendition program.

• As protests spread in Egypt, cables revealed that strong man Suleiman was at center of government’s torture programs, causing severe backlash for Mubarak after he named Suleiman vice president during the revolt. Other cables revealed or confirmed widespread Mubarak regime corruption, police abuses and torture, and claims of massive Mubarak famiiy fortune, significantly influencing media coverage and US response.

Now, an excerpt from our book on just small aspect of the Iraq war cables. As I noted, this doesn’t even include the release of the “Collateral Murder” video earlier.

Al Jazeera suggested that the real bombshell was the US allowing Iraqis to torture detainees. Documents revealed that US soldiers sent 1,300 reports to headquarters with graphic accounts, including a few about detainees beaten to death. Some US generals wanted our troops to intervene, but Pentagon chiefs disagreed, saying these assaults should only be reported, not stopped. At a time the US was declaring that no torture was going on, there were forty-one reports of such abuse still happening “and yet the US chose to turn its back.”

The New York Times report on the torture angle included this: “The six years of reports include references to the deaths of at least six prisoners in Iraqi custody, most of them in recent years. Beatings, burnings and lashings surfaced in hundreds of reports, giving the impression that such treatment was not an exception. In one case, Americans suspected Iraqi Army officers of cutting off a detainee’s fingers and burning him with acid. Two other cases produced accounts of the executions of bound detainees.

And while some abuse cases were investigated by the Americans, most noted in the archive seemed to have been ignored, with the equivalent of an institutional shrug: soldiers told their officers and asked the Iraqis to investigate…. That policy was made official in a report dated May 16, 2005, saying that ‘if US forces were not involved in the detainee abuse, no further investigation will be conducted until directed by HHQ.’ In many cases, the order appeared to allow American soldiers to turn a blind eye to abuse of Iraqis on Iraqis.

Amnesty International quickly called on the US to investigate how much our commanders knew about Iraqi torture.

A top story at The Guardian, meanwhile, opened: “Leaked Pentagon files obtained by The Guardian contain details of more than 100,000 people killed in Iraq following the US-led invasion, including more than 15,000 deaths that were previously unrecorded.

“British ministers have repeatedly refused to concede the existence of any official statistics on Iraqi deaths. US General Tommy Franks claimed ‘We don’t do body counts.’ The mass of leaked documents provides the first detailed tally by the US military of Iraqi fatalities. Troops on the ground filed secret field reports over six years of the occupation, purporting to tote up every casualty, military and civilian.

“Iraq Body Count, a London-based group that monitors civilian casualties, told the Guardian: ‘These logs contain a huge amount of entirely new information regarding casualties. Our analysis so far indicates that they will add 15,000 or more previously unrecorded deaths to the current IBC total. This data should never have been withheld from the public.’ ” The logs recorded a total of 109,032 violent deaths between 2004 and 2009.

Citing a new document, the Times reported: “According to one particularly painful entry from 2006, an Iraqi wearing a tracksuit was killed by an American sniper who later discovered that the victim was the platoon’s interpreter…. The documents…reveal many previously unreported instances in which American soldiers killed civilians—at checkpoints, from helicopters, in operations. Such killings are a central reason Iraqis turned against the American presence in their country, a situation that is now being repeated in Afghanistan.”

And now, re the Afghanistan war logs, another book excerpt:

The Times highlighted it as “The War Logs” with the subhed, “A six-year archive of classified military documents offers an unvarnished and grim picture of the Afghan war.” Explicitly, or by extension, the release also raised questions about the media coverage of the war to date.

The Guardian carried a tough editorial on its website, calling the picture “disturbing” and raising doubts about ever winning this war, adding: “These war logs—written in the heat of engagement—show a conflict that is brutally messy, confused and immediate. It is in some contrast with the tidied-up and sanitized ‘public’ war, as glimpsed through official communiques as well as the necessarily limited snapshots of embedded reporting.”

Elsewhere, the paper traced the CIA and paramilitary roles in the deaths of civilians in Afghanistan, many cases hidden until now. In one incident, a US patrol machine-gunned a bus, wounding or killing fifteen. David Leigh wrote, “They range from the shootings of individual innocents to the often massive loss of life from air strikes, which eventually led President Hamid Karzai to protest publicly that the US was treating Afghan lives as ‘cheap’.”

The paper said the logs also detailed “how the Taliban have caused growing carnage with a massive escalation of their roadside bombing campaign, which has killed more than 2,000 civilians to date.” Previously unknown friendly fire incidents also surfaced.

The White House, which knew what was coming, quickly slammed the release of classified reports— most labeled “secret”—and pointed out the documents ended in 2009, just before the president set a new policy in the war; and claimed that the whole episode was suspect because WikiLeaks was against the war. Still, it was hard to dismiss official internal memos such as: “The general view of Afghans is that current gov’t is worse than the Taliban.

Among the revelations that gained prime real estate from The New York Times: “The documents…suggest that Pakistan, an ostensible ally of the United States, allows representatives of its spy service to meet directly with the Taliban in secret strategy sessions to organize networks of militant groups that fight against American soldiers in Afghanistan, and even hatch plots to assassinate Afghan leaders.” The Guardian, however, found no “smoking gun” on this matter. The Times also reported that the US had given Afghans credit for missions carried out by our own Special Ops teams.””

Greg Mitchell

Greg Mitchell writes a daily blog for The Nation focusing on media, politics and culture. He is the former editor of Editor & Publisher and author of thirteen books. His latest book, on the 2012 Obama-Romney race, isTricks, Lies, and Videotape. His other books include Atomic Cover-UpThe Campaign of the Century (winner of the Goldsmith Book Prize), two books related to WikiLeaks and a pair of books with Robert Jay Lifton on Hiroshima and the death penalty in America. His Twitter feed is @GregMitch and he can be reached at: His personal blog is Pressing Issues.

Entre Nos, the Movie

Entre Nos, the Movie

“Entre Nos is a bio/true story about a woman’s struggle to survive in New York City with her two children after being abandoned by her husband. The main character, Mariana, totes her two children from the country and culture of Colombia to reunite with her husband in Queens, New York. Her life is devastatingly turned around when her husband abandons the family. As a result, Mariana now struggles with unemployment, eviction letters, eviction notice forms, how to speak fluent English, and experiencing the earliest signs of pregnancy. With no where to go Mariana starts experience various types of stress due to her misfortunes. Mariana and her kids have to now be equipped to survive in living in a foreign country as Mariana desperately searches for jobs hiring in NYC. In the end, Mariana resourcefully navigates a surprising avenue for making some money by using recycle containers to recycle for cash. While the threats to Mariana’s family are palpable, the three manage to avoid drastic suffering. Given the maternal fortitude displayed by Mariana the family grows strong through their struggles.” (EntreNos) This is an exception in the poverty trap, fortunately for this family.

Are some celebrities eccentric or sick?

Are some celebrities eccentric or sick?

If you ever felt that your uniqueness means that you are not like other people, and you do not have human limitation, you have entered the arena that Greek writers called “tragedy”.  In this arena, all Greek heroes often had the same flaws, excessive pride. It happens when people fail to accept human limitation, and when they believe they are not subjects to the same constrains as others. Also, the same happens to people who victimize (Carnes, 1997, pp. 84-85).

According to Dr. Patrick Carnes, here are some ways such entitlement can develop: all kind of people who were damaged or abused while growing up, and when not dealing with their issues, they end up believing that laws and rules don’t apply to themselves (e.g., sociopaths, narcissists, addicts).

Interesting is to note that people who grew up in families of extraordinary wealth, power or fame as well as people of great talent of hard work that rise to positions of great power, may share the same beliefs but with no apparent diagnosis. Often, they act in the same way, and laws and rules don’t apply to themselves. In other words, they believe they deserve privileges. They may see themselves as being better than others (e.g., smarter, tougher, etc.). Therefore, they believe that they are more deserving. Many of these famous or powerful figures died with no diagnosis… As a matter of fact, often they are just recognized as eccentrics (e.g, Steve Jobs, John F. Kennedy), and this is still a millenary heritage of our culture.

Monsieur Lazhar (2012)

Monsieur Lazhar (2012)

Monsieur Lazhar touches the children world, the death world, the immigrant world, the silent world, the unfair world. In other words, it is about oppression and omission. All a child need is love and safeness to express themselves…

Review by Stephen Holden:

“”In the indelible opening scene of Philippe Falardeau’s “Monsieur Lazhar,” Simon (Émilien Néron), a sixth grader at a Montreal middle school, catches a glimpse of the body of Martine, a popular teacher who has hanged herself from a pipe inside a classroom. He turns and runs.

We don’t see him report the fatality. The camera remains stationary, in a kind of daze, until several teachers dash into the building and frantically herd children returning from recess back outside. Simon’s friend Alice (Sophie Nélisse) detaches herself just long enough to steal a peek through a crack in the door before being shooed away. We never see the victim’s face.

The subtlety and discretion with which the revelation is handled says much about  “Monsieur Lazhar,” Mr. Falardeau’s fourth feature film, adapted from a one-person play by Evelyne de la Chenelière. The film, which was nominated for an Oscar for best foreign language film, picked up six Genies (Canadian Oscars), including best picture, director, adapted screenplay and actor. The title character is powerfully embodied by Fellag, an Algerian theater director and actor known for his one-man shows, who has lived in Paris since 1995.

“Monsieur Lazhar” sustains an exquisite balance between grown-up and child’s-eye views of education, teacher-student relations and peer-group interactions. The students come quirkily alive in superb naturalistic performances devoid of cuteness and stereotyping. Like no other film about middle school life that I can recall “Monsieur Lazhar” conveys the intensity and the fragility of these classroom bonds and the mutual trust they require.

Although it looks askance at the extreme measures parents and teachers take to protect children, often more knowledgeable and resilient than they’re given credit for, it acknowledges that some do need protection. It especially calls into question the strict modern rules that forbid any physical contact between teachers and students who in moments of crisis feel a desperate need for the comfort and reassurance that a hug can provide.

Amid the tempest stands the title character, Bachir Lazhar, a 55-year-old Algerian immigrant in need of a job who read about the suicide and presents himself to the stiff-backed principal (Danielle Proulx) as a substitute. Bachir, who says he taught grade school in Algiers for 19 years before settling in Quebec, seems to be a godsend. Polite, formal and soft-spoken, he takes over a class whose students are traumatized to varying degrees and easily wins their confidence and affection.

He is sternly instructed not to bring up the suicide and told that a psychologist will deal with the children’s reactions. During those sessions he is not allowed in the classroom. Bachir proves himself a caring, dedicated teacher, although there are some glitches. A dictation from Balzac is too difficult for his students. There are differences between Québécois and Algerian French. Most important, he doesn’t know the rules about physical contact and lightly cuffs an unruly student.

He teaches the fables of La Fontaine, and in an inspired stroke invites the students to invent their own. In the film’s most moving scene he regales them with one he invented about a chrysalis and a tree that addresses both Martine’s suicide and his own recent personal calamity, which he is barely able to talk about. Bachir isn’t exactly what he claims. In Algeria he was a civil servant who later owned a restaurant but has never taught. Nor is he, as he has stated, a permanent resident of Quebec. He is applying for political asylum following the horrific murder of his wife, a teacher, and their two children in a fire deliberately set the night before they were to have left Algeria to join him in Canada. The Lazhar family had been subjected to repeated death threats since the publication of his wife’s book criticizing the government’s reconciliation policy after the country’s civil war.

Without pushing the parallels, the story obliquely connects Bachir’s story with his empathy for the children, especially his intuition that Simon’s distress is more complex and deeply rooted than it at first appears. When the truth is finally revealed in a flood of tears, the boy’s heart-rending confession reminds you of how easily children can torture themselves with guilt for imagined sins.

Bachir cannot follow the rules. When the class needs his emotional support, he delivers a healing, common-sense speech about the suicide to the students who take it in stride. You applaud him for his bravery and tact.

“Don’t try to find a meaning in Martine’s death; there isn’t one,” this flawed hero declares. “A classroom is a place of friendship, of work, of courtesy, a place of life.”

Written and directed by Philippe Falardeau, based on the stage play by Evelyne de la Chenelière; director of photography, Ronald Plante; edited by Stéphane Lafleur; music by Martin Léon; production design by Emmanuel Fréchette; costumes by Francesca Chamberland; produced by Luc Déry and Kim McCraw; released by Music Box Films. In French, with English subtitles. Running time: 1 hour 34 minutes.

WITH: Fellag (Bachir Lazhar), Sophie Nélisse (Alice), Émilien Néron (Simon), Danielle Proulx (Mrs. Vaillancourt), Brigitte Poupart (Claire), Louis Champagne (Janitor), Jules Philip (Gaston), Francine Ruel (Mrs. Dumas) and Sophie Sanscartier (Audrée).””

Steve Jobs, the Life of a Real Jerk

Steve Jobs, the Life of a Real Jerk

My stomach allowed me to read the biography of Steve Jobs until the pp. 158, and here are some of the reasons:

“The Apple raid on Xerox PARC is sometimes described as one of the biggest heists in the chronicles of industry. Jobs occasionally endorsed this view, whit pride. As he once said, “Picasso had a saying – ‘good artists copy, great artists steal’ – and we have always been shameless about stealing great ideas.”” (pp. 98)

“”We have to do something about your buddy Daniel (Kottke), Rod Holt said, and he suggested they each give him some of their own options. “Whatever you give him, I will match it”, said Holt. Replied Jobs, “Okay. I will give him zero.”(…) Wosniak, not surprisingly, had the opposite attitude. Before the shares went public, he decided to sell, at a very low price, two thoussand of his options to forty different midlevel employees” (like Daniel Kottke). (pp. 103)

“He was not particularly philantropic. (pp. 105) His biggest personal gift (was to his parents, Paul and Clara Jobs, to whom he gave about $750,00 worth of stock. They sold the same to pay off the mortgage on their home.” (pp. 106)

“To some people, calling it a reality distortion field was just a clever way to say that Jobs tended to lie.” (pp. 118)

“For all of his obnoxious behavior, Jobs also had the ability to install in his team an esprit of corps. After tearing people down, he would find ways of lift them up and make them feel that being a part of the Macintosh project was an amazing mission.” (pp. 142)

“As they proceed to visit other Japanese companies (…) they formally handed him little gifts, as was the custom, he often left them behind, and he never reciprocated with gifts of his own.” (pp. 146)

“The person they most wanted was Don Estridge, who had built IBM’s personal computer (…) now outselling Apple’s. Like Jobs, he was driven and inspiring, but unlike Jobs, he had the ability to allow other to think that his brilliant ideas were their own. Jobs flew to Boca Raton with the offer of $1 million salary and a $1 million bonus, but Estridge turned him down. He was not the type who would jump ship to join the enemy. He also enjoyed being part of the establishment, a member of the Navy instead of a pirate. He was discomfort by Job’s tales of ripping off the phone company. When asked where he worked, he loved to be able to answer “IBM”.” (pp. 149)

Maybe he was a mild bipolar with no conscience of its possibility. Also, people with so much power are mistaken labeled as eccentric or even, and worse, excused for everything:

“Sculley began to believe that Job’s mercurial personality and erratic treatment of people were rooted deep in his psychological makeup, perhaps the reflection of a mild bipolarity. There were big mood swings; sometimes he would be ecstatic, or other times he was depressed.” (pp. 157)

Knowing that he never got to be a better person or even close to be decent, I see no reason to keep reading this biography for the same reason I don’t feel like reading Picasso’s biography as well as one of Picasso’s biographer decided to not finish it…

We need Heroes. Let’s create them! [Precisamos de mais Heróis. Então, vamos criá-los!]

Team Justice League

Team Justice League

Heroes and evils are opposite extremes in the general population and are both very rare. The majority of the population does nothing but if so, they do without any imagination, just going with the flow. In other words, the key to figure out if you are going to follow Gandhi or Hitler is way more related to the circumstances than you can possibly imagine. But the fact is:


and according to Dr. Philip Zimbardo, we need to spread the word and show that our inner hero can be shut down by a negative environment. Moreover, we need to not let these happen and motivate the heroic action, transforming compassion into heroic action. With this purpose, Zimbardo and collegues created the Heroic Imagination Project based on scientific findings that people tend to do what the group decides to do even if they are sure that it is the wrong choice (Salomon Asch’s Conformity) or people tend to not help if the others do not help either (the Bystander effect). Worse, people tend to harm others under the obedience to unjust authority (Stanley Milgram Experiment). Therefore, what is necessary is to teach that no matter the circumstances:


and the right choice is the one that really matters and is capable to change the world for better.

The newest hero is Nirvan Mullick, a cineast that discovered the little persistent Caine and – after watching this video – you will know the 9-year-old Caine Monroy and his Caine’s Arcade:

Nirvan Mullick with Caine Monroy

Nirvan Mullick, the Hero who discovered the little artist and persistent Caine Monroy at Caine's Arcade.

Here is a big list of the CNN HEROES ARCHIVE for 2012 and past years.

3 not well known Heroes but amazing ones cited by Zimbardo: the 9-year-old-boy Lin Hao (2008), the 15-year-old-girl Claudette Colvin (1955), and Irena Sendler (1940-43) on her 30’s. It took decades for Claudette and Irena to be recognized:

Lin Hao, the Hero

Lin Hao, the Hero of China Earthquake 2008 who came back to save his classmates.

Claudette Colvin, the Hero

Claudette Colvin, the Hero of African-American Civil Rights Movement in the 50's who refused to give her seat to a white person in the bus.

Irena Sendler, the Hero

Irena Sendler, the Hero of World War II keeping more than 2,500 Jewish kids away from nazis concentration camps.

Heróis e vilões são extremos opostos em uma população qualquer e ambos são muito raros. A maioria da população não faz nada, mas se fizer, faz sem nenhuma imaginação, só indo com a maré. Em outras palavras, a chave para descobrir se você vai acompanhar Gandhi ou Hitler está mais relacionada com as circunstâncias do que você possa imaginar. Mas o fato é que:


e de acordo com o Dr. Philip Zimbardo, é preciso mostrar que o nosso herói interior pode ser destruído por um ambiente negativo. Além disso, é preciso não deixar que isto aconteça e motivar a atitude heróica, transformando compaixão em ação heróica. Com este propósito, Zimbardo e colegas criaram o Heroic Imagination Project baseado em descobertas científicas nas quais as pessoas tendem a fazer o que o grupo decide fazer, mesmo tendo certeza que seja a escolha errada (Salomon Asch’s Conformity) ou as pessoas tendem a não ajudar se os outros também não ajudam (the Bystander effect). Pior, as pessoas tendem a prejudicar os outros quando estão sob obediência à autoridade injusta (Stanley Milgram Experiment). Portanto, o que é necessário é ensinar que não importa as circunstâncias:


e a escolha certa é o que realmente importa e é capaz de mudar o mundo para melhor.

O mais novo herói é Nirvan Mullick, um cineasta que descobriu o persistente Caine e – depois de assistir a este vídeo – você vai saber tudo sobre Caine Monroy, um garotinho de 9 anos de idade  e sua Caine Arcade.

Aqui uma extensa lista de heróis da CNN HEROES ARCHIVE para 2012 e anos anteriores.

3 Heróis não bem conhecidos, mas incríveis citados por Zimbardo: o garoto de 9 anos Lin Hao (2008), a menina de 15 anos Claudette Colvin (1955), e Irena Sendler (1940-1943) nos seu 30. Claudette e Irena foram reconhecidas como heroínas muitas décadas mais tarde.

Jolie is way more than just a Hollywood star, and she proves it “In the land of blood and honey”


Watch it in Bosnian with subtitles in English. It is way better!

“What Angelina Jolie has accomplished in “In the Land of Blood and Honey” is both impressive and unexpected.” – Kenneth Turan

“Jolie is impressive in its lack of directorial flourishes: it feels like a film born out of scrupulous research and deeply felt conviction.” – Andrew Pulver

Jolie’s two protagonists are Bosniak Muslim painter Ajla (Zana Marjanović) and Bosnian Serb policeman Danijel (Goran Kostić): in the film’s early pre-war scenes, which suggest Sarajevo as a paradise of an ethnic melting pot, they appear about to launch themselves into a heartfelt relationship, but a bomb blast in the dancehall where Ajla and Danijel meet puts a dramatic stop to it (Andrew Pulver). Danijel will be  a soldier fighting for the Serbs, and Ajla will be held captive in the camp he oversees. As the armed conflict takes hold of their lives, their relationship grows darker, their motives and connection to one another ambiguous.

The Official Trailer: In the Land of Blood and Honey.

It is murder. It is still murder. – an impressive dialogue from the movie.

The Old Yugoslavia

Bosnia-Herzegovina had 4.4 mi people before war with the most complex mix of religious traditions among the former Yugoslav republics: 44% Bosniaks (Muslims), 31% Bosnian Serb (Eastern Orthodox), and 17% Bosnian Croat (Roman Catholics). Bosnians Muslims are Slavs who converted to Islam centuries ago. From World War I until the end of the Cold War, Bosnia was part of the newly created country of Yugoslavia. Bosnia declared independence in March 1992, and the Bosnian war started right after. Prior to the war,  a former psychiatrist (Radovan Karadzic) created a renegade army with the support of Bosnian Serbs in Bosnia. In 1992, Bosnian Serb nationalists began a systematic policy of “cleansing” large areas of Bosnia of non-Serbs. Bosnia was attacked by the Yugoslav National Army, Bosnian Serb nationalists, and Bosnian Croat nationalists. The siege of Sarajevo lasted 43 months. Rape was very present in this war. Estimates of the numbers raped range from 20,000 to 50,000. This has been referred to as “mass rape”. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) declared that “systematic rape”, and “sexual enslavement” in time of war was a crime against humanity, second only to the war crime of genocide.

Official website of the Movie:

Amazing Press Conference about the Movie and the Memories of the Cast

Zana Marjanovic as Ajla

Zana Marjanovic as Ajla

Goran Kostic as Danijel
Jolie in Action

Jolie in Action